Originally surveyed as Township No. 3 in the 1st Range North of the Plymouth Claim

East of the Kennebec River as part of the then Province of Maine of Massachusetts Bay Colony

Organized as Warrens No. 3 Plantation – October 11, 1819

Incorporated as Town of Hartland – February 7, 1820

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(Update in Progress! 2/29/2024)

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One of the first known maps of new townships in the previously unsettled wilderness region north of the Plymouth Claim in the then Province of Maine was surveyed by Ephraim Ballard in September of 1779. Ballard (1725-1821) resided in the Hallowell area most of his adult life and produced numerous maps in the area as one of the principal surveyors for the Kennebec Proprietors, a group of heirs officially known as “The Proprietors of Kennebeck Purchase from the late Colony of New Plymouth” which had organized in 1749 to lay claim to the original 1629 Plymouth Claim and awarded to them by the General Court of Massachusetts in 1753.

It was not uncommon for surveyors to layout townships in relatively squared lots. Albeit convenient for future deed boundary identification purposes, this uniform surveying method often ignored the area’s natural boundaries and eventually often made for problematic access to education, town affairs and services for some of those who later settled there. 

Among several townships noted on Ballard’s original map is Township No. 3 in the First Range which eventually became Hartland and included his placement of Moose Pond and the West Branch of the Sebasticook River. A rough overlay for visual reference of the surveyed township borders on the original map is seen below.

Overlay of the Original Ephraim Ballard Map – 1779

(Courtesy of Maine State Library | Digital Maine Repository Collection)

For a complete and enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

Original Ballard Map at Digital Maine Repository

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Upon ratification of its State Constitution on October 25, 1780, the former Massachusetts Bay Colony took its new name as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and renamed the former Province of Maine as the District of Maine.

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Samuel Weston (1757-1802) of Canaan/Skowhegan, whose father Joseph was an early settler of the original part of Canaan in 1772 which became Skowhegan, was another prominent surveyor of townships and township lot layouts in the region for various Land Proprietors.

In October of 1790, Samuel Weston surveyed 3 Townships in the 2nd Range North of the Plymouth Claim in the now District of Maine followed by a survey in October of 1791 of 3 additional Townships in the 1st Range which he would include along with notations of landmarks and land quality in this completed map drawn soon after. The map would be referenced in Dr. John Warren’s 1799 Deed for his purchase of the future town of Hartland as “said Township being Number Three in the First Range, North of the Plymouth Claim, on the East side of Kennebec River, as the same was surveyed by Samuel Weston in the year Seventeen Hundred & Ninety-Two”.

Samuel Weston Survey Map 1790-1791

(Courtesy of Maine State Library | Digital Maine Repository Collection)

For a complete and enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

Original Weston Map at Digital Maine Repository

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A close-up of Weston’s map reveals a few general notes of his assessment of land quality, its total acreage and some bodies of water. He noted ‘Lemmons’s Stream’ as the name for what is now known as Lemon Stream but did not note Black Stream separately. ‘Moos or Pickerel Pond’ is noted for what is now Great Moose Lake. The ‘2 small ponds’ noted are now Starbird Pond & Bog Pond with the notation ‘hereabouts lies a pond’ now being Stafford Pond. The reason for the absence of Morrill Pond is unknown.

Samuel Weston Township No. 3 Survey Map

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Osgood Carleton recreated Samuel Weston’s original early 1790s survey map into this more formal version. Although the exact year this map was produced is currently unknown, it included the names the townships had later taken when they incorporated as towns which were not noted on Weston’s map.

Solon – Inc. 1809 | Athens – Inc. 1804 | Harmony – Inc. 1803 | Madison – Inc. 1804 | Cornville – Inc. 1798 | Hartland – Inc. 1820

Osgood Carleton Version of the Original Samuel Weston Survey

(Courtesy of Maine State Library | Digital Maine Repository Collection)

For an enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

Original Carleton Map at Digital Maine Repository

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In 1793, Osgood Carleton created one of the oldest known maps of the District of Maine at the time. As noted in various publications, Carleton (1741-1816) was a key figure in the early mapping of Maine while it was still part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. A land surveyor and teacher of mathematical arts in Boston, he compiled existing manuscript maps and plans into maps of the district for books on U.S. geography and Maine history.

District of Maine by Osgood Carleton – 1793

(Courtesy of Osher Map Library Collection | University of Southern Maine)

For an enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

Original 1793 Carleton Map at Osher Library

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Carleton’s next Map of the District of Maine in 1795 included many additional details with numerous towns and townships noted including Hartland as Township No. 3 as its original designation located in the 1st Range, North of the Plymouth Claim.

District of Maine by Osgood Carleton – 1795

(Courtesy of Osher Map Library Collection | University of Southern Maine)

For an enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

Original 1795 Carleton Map at Osher Library

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This close-up from the 1795 Carleton Map highlights the location of Hartland noted by its original designation as Township No. 3. Also noteworthy is the 1 Million Acre Lot to the north purchased by Philadelphia lawyer and financier William Bingham along with 2 other million acre lots in Downeast Maine soon after the infamous failed Maine Land Lottery venture.

Cropped Image of 1795 Map

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In order for Land Proprietors who purchased Townships in the District of Maine to meet the standard settlement obligations required by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and, of equal priority to both, pay taxes, townships had to be broken into individual lots to be sold to settlers. Depending on the township, these lots could range in size from 50 acres to 400 acres. Each township was also required by the Commonwealth to reserve specific sized lots for educational, religious and public meeting purposes. These settlement obligations and lot reservations are included in Dr. Warren’s 1799 Deed for Township No. 3.

Currently, our search continues for the individual range & lot map likely surveyed for Township No. 3 following Dr. Warren’s purchase. References to these Lot Numbers are seen on numerous deeds and in some of the town boundary line change acts made after Hartland incorporated as a town. It is likely, but unconfirmed, the survey was done by Samuel Weston who completed numerous such lot surveys in the surrounding area.

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As a visual reference, we include this 1797 Range & Lot Map below by Samuel Weston for neighboring Canaan (before several major boundary line changes) indicating varying lot sizes with individual lot number designations within an assigned range number typical of these types of maps. Note that Long Pond as written on the map is now known as Lake George.

Lot Number & Range Number Map of Canaan – 1797

(Courtesy of Canaan Historical Society)

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In 1798, Samuel Weston surveyed neighboring Township No. 5 (St Albans) into individual lots for its new proprietor, Dr. John Warren of Boston. Among those lots surveyed was the large Lot S-17 straddling the Sebasticook River centered at the island which William Moor of Goffstown, New Hampshire had purchased following his exploration of the area around 1796. Moor would return with his family in 1802 and settle next to the island along the eastern bank of the Sebasticook River enumerated in the 1810 Census as, “Fairhaven, so called”, before incorporating as the Town of St Albans in 1812. William Moor’s lot, and a large area surrounding it, would eventually be annexed from St Albans to become part of the current village area of Hartland.

It is to be noted, this map was drawn in a non-typical compass bearing manner with its northern boundary on the right side of the map and its western boundary with Hartland at the top, noted as Township No. 3 in the 1st Range. 

“This plans represents Township No. Five in the Third & Fourth Ranges of Townships North of the Waldo Patent & between the rivers of Kennebec & Penobscot. The same being surveyed into lots on the months of September & October A. D. 1798 for Dr. John Warren and is here delineated by the scale of one mile to an inch.” ~ Samuel Weston, Surveyor – Canaan – October 21, 1798.

Surveyors Map of Township No. 5 (St Albans) – 1798

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Close Up of William Moor’s S-17 Lot from 1798 Lot Survey Map

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On June 15, 1799, Dr John Warren of Boston was deeded the future town of Hartland, “…in consideration of Eight Thousand, One Hundred and Forty Nine Dollars and Thirty Cents” and further noting, “…a Township of land lying in the County of Lincoln, and containing about Thirty Thousand Acres (be it the same or more of 1%) the said Township being Number Three in the First Range, north of the Plymouth Claim, on the East side of the Kennebec River, as the same was surveyed by Samuel Weston in the year Seventeen Hundred & Ninety Two; bounded Easterly by number five in the fourth range north of the Waldo Patent, in part; and partly by township number five in the third range above said patent; Southerly by the Township last mentioned in part, and partly by the Plymouth claim; Westerly by number two in first range north of the Plymouth claim; and northerly by number two in second range north of the Plymouth claim in part, and partly by number three in the range last mentioned, and by Moose or Pickerel Pond.”

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Settlement in Township No. 3 would predominately begin in the western and northern regions with James Fuller, Sr credited historically as the earliest settler in West Hartland in 1802 while William Moor settled in the future part of Hartland around the same time. Numerous other families would soon follow and organized the township as Warrens No. 3 Plantation in 1819 just before petitioning the Massachusetts General Court to incorporate as the Town of Hartland granted to them on February 7, 1820. A little over a month later, the District of Maine would separate from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts as an independent State of the Union.

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An 1820 Map soon after Maine’s admission as the 23rd State on March 15, 1820 as part of the Missouri Compromise. 

Map of Maine by Moses Greenleaf – 1820

(Photo taken at Ellsworth Public Library)

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When Dr. Warren purchased Township No. 3, the future town of Hartland had been surveyed as a fairly uniform rectangular lot of roughly 30,000 acres which did not take into account some the area’s predominant natural boundaries such as Black Stream and the Sebasticook River. Each of Hartland’s original surveyed town lines would eventually be altered, in part to address geographical obstructions incurred by its citizens limiting proximity for representation in town affairs.

Close Up of Hartland – Greenleaf Map of Maine – 1820

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1843 Map of Somerset County with existing towns & townships.

Somerset County – 1843 

(Courtesy of Osher Map Library Collection | University of Southern Maine)

For an enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

Original 1843 Map of Somerset County at Osher Library

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A close-up of the 1843 Somerset County Map with Hartland’s boundaries at the time. Further boundary changes were made in 1846 to part of the western line of St Albans annexing the present Hartland Village area from St Albans followed by a large section of West Hartland ceded to Canaan in 1849, both detailed below.

Hartland from Somerset County Map – 1843

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The 1860 Map of Somerset County includes a detailed insert of Hartland Village. Many of these family surnames, streets, businesses and other historically significant places noted on this map may be found throughout our website on their respective dedicated pages listed in the pull down menu at the top of the page.

Hartland Village – Insert from 1860 Somerset County Map

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Directory of Hartland – Insert from 1860 Somerset County Map

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A detailed layout of all of Hartland was included on the 1860 Somerset County Map with most of its updated boundary lines however the map’s color coding for its north-west boundary is incorrect but does properly note “Stream is Town Line”. Included on the map are dwelling locations with names of some of its residents, existing schoolhouses (SH), some of the various businesses and cemeteries located throughout the town at the time.

Hartland – 1860 Somerset County Map

(Courtesy of Library of Congress)

For a complete and enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

1860 Map at Library of Congress

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The 1883 Atlas of Somerset County includes a detailed map of Hartland Village reflecting its substantial industrial, business and population growth since 1860 as it evolved to become the new political center of town affairs which had originally been concentrated mostly in West Hartland since its incorporation.

Hartland Village – 1883 Atlas of Somerset County by George N. Colby & Company

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A detailed layout of all of Hartland was included in the 1883 Somerset County Atlas with its proper boundary lines. Included on the map are land lots with property owner names and dwelling locations, existing schoolhouses (SH), some of the various businesses and cemeteries located throughout the town at the time.

Hartland – 1883 Atlas of Somerset County by George N. Colby & Company

(Courtesy of Maine State Library | Digital Maine Repository Collection)

For an enlargeable version of this original map, click on the link below:

1883 Map at Digital Maine Repository

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An original 1896 “Bird’s Eye View” Map of Hartland Village purchased by Albion K. Libby in 1896 was graciously loaned to us for digital reproduction by his grandson F. Wayne Libby. Our special thanks to E. W. Littlefield Inc. & Sons Construction of Hartland for funding the digital scanning process for our collection.

Hartland Village – 1896

(Courtesy of Wayne Libby)

For an enlargeable version of this map, click on the link below:

1896 Map – Google Photos

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The first of two Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Maps of Hartland Village were completed in December of 1917. The 4 page map provides exquisite details of businesses and homes throughout the Village at the time.

Page 1 – Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map – 1917

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Page 2 – Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map – 1917

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Page 3 – Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map – 1917

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Page 4 – Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map – 1917

For a complete and enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

1917 Sanborn Map at Library of Congress

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We are in the process of having the 1943 Maps digitally scanned and printed for higher resolution and uniform clarity.

Hartland Village – 1943

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Hartland – 1943

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In 1945, several revisions were made to the original Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map of Hartland Village which included new, remodeled or removed buildings and updated business operations since the map’s original publication in 1917.

Page 1 – Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map – 1945

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Page 2 – Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map – 1945

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Page 3 – Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map – 1945

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Page 4 – Sanborn Company Fire Insurance Map – 1945

For a complete and enlargeable version of this original map, click the link below:

1945 Sanborn Map at Library of Congress

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1982 United States Geographical Survey Topographical Map of Hartland Area.

United States Geographical Survey Topographical Map of Hartland Area – 1982

For an enlargeable version of this original map, click on the link below:

USGS Topographical Map of Hartland