Township No. 3 – 1st Range North of the Plymouth Patent – East of the Kennebec River
Numerous documents, books, articles and reports relating to Hartland have been discovered over the years and are presented below with many of the documents transcribed from their original source. Our search always continues for further information and will be updated as found.
Following the end of the Revolutionary War, surveys of the unsettled “wilderness” regions of Maine were done on behalf of the Lands Committee appointed by the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts which held full power and authority to sell and convey unappropriated lands in the then District of Maine. Surveyors typically laid out new townships in relatively squared lots which was standard practice as the Commonwealth made them available for wealthy Land Proprietors to purchase. Albeit convenient for those parties, the uniform surveying method often ignored the area’s natural boundaries and often made for problematic access to education, town affairs and services for some of the settlers who later came to live there.
The first known official survey of the region was completed by Ephraim Ballard in September of 1779. Among several future townships noted on Ballard’s map is Township No. 3 in the First Range which eventually became Hartland. A second known survey of the roughly 30,000 acre Township No. 3 Lot was completed by Samuel Weston in 1792 and is referred to in Dr. John Warren’s deed for the township’s purchase however we are still searching for a copy of this survey map. A third known survey of the region was completed by Carleton Osgood & Samuel Weston in 1794. (See Maps Page)
~ Deed for Township No. 3 to Dr. John Warren – June 15, 1799 ~
Know all men by these presents that we whose names are undersigned and seals are hereunto affixed, appointed as committee by the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, with full power & authority, to sell and convey the unappropriated lands of said Commonwealth, lying within the District of Maine, in consideration of Eight Thousand, One Hundred and Forty Nine Dollars and Thirty Cents, to us in hand paid by John Warren of Boston in the County of Suffolk and Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Physician, for the use of said commonwealth, the receipt whereof we do hereby acknowledge, have given, granted, sold and conveyed, and by these Presents, in behalf of said Commonwealth, do give, grant, sell and convey unto the said John Warren assignee of Moses Barnard and Joseph Hilton both of Deerfield, & Isaac Thom & George Reid both of Londonderry, and all of the State of New Hampshire, Esquires, and their associates, a Township of land lying in the County of Lincoln, and containing about Thirty Thousand Acres (be the same more of 1%) the said Township being Number Three in the First Range, north of the Plymouth Claim, on the East side of Kennebec River, as the same was surveyed by Samuel Weston in the year Seventeen Hundred & Ninety Two; bounded Easterly by number five in the fourth range north of the Waldo Patent, in part; and partly by township number five in the third range above said patent; Southerly by the Township last mentioned in part, and partly by the Plymouth claim; Westerly by number two in first range north of the Plymouth claim; and northerly by number two in second range north of the Plymouth claim in part, and partly by number three in the range last mentioned, and by Moose (Picard?) Pond.
Excepting and reserving however, four lots of three hundred and twenty acres each for the following uses viz., One lot for the first settled minister his Heirs or assigns – One lot for the use of the ministry – One lot for the use of schools – One lot for the future disposition of the General Court. The said lots to average in situation and quality with the other lands in said Township.
To have and to hold, the above granted Premises with the appurtenances thereof to the said John Warren, his Heirs or assigns forever, on condition that the said John Warren, his Heirs or assigns shall grant and convey to each settler in said Township, who settled therein, before the First day of January, Seventeen Hundred and Eighty Four, or in case of his decease without assignment, then to his Heirs and in case of assignment, then to the assigns, One hundred acres to be so laid out, as will best include the improvements of the settler, and be least injurious to the adjoining lands, so as that the settler, his Heirs or assigns may hold the same in fee simple.
Provided that the settler his Heirs or assigns shall within one year after notice and request, pay to the grantees named in this Deed, their Heirs or assigns, Five dollars, and on this further condition, that the said John Warren, before the twentieth day of June, One Thousand Eight hundred and One, shall settle twenty families within said township, and before the twentieth day of June, One Thousand Eight hundred and Five shall settle twenty families more.
And the said committee covenant with the said John Warren, that the said commonwealth shall warrant and defend the above granted Premises to him the said John Warren, on the said condition and saving the reservations aforesaid, to him his Heirs and assigns forever; against the lawful claims and demands of all persons; the above granted Township having been contracted for, by the said Moses Barnard, Joseph Hilton, Isaac Thom and George Reid and their associates, on the Twenty Sixth day of February One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety Six.
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals, this Fifteenth day of June, in the year of our Lord, Seventeen Hundred and Ninety Nine.
Signed, Sealed & Delivered in presence of:
Nathaniel L. Wells – Leonard Jarvis – John Read, Sr – John Vinall – John Read, Jr
Boston, Suffolk County, Commonwealth of Massachusetts – June 15, 1799
Personally appeared the above named Nathaniel L. Wells, Leonard Jarvis & John Read acknowledged this instrument to be their free act and Deed before John Vinall, Justice of the Peace
Dr. John Warren was born and raised in Roxbury, Massachusetts. He graduated in 1771 from Harvard University and in 1777 married Abigail Collins with whom he had 17 children. He served as a Surgeon in the Revolutionary War along with his brother, Samuel Warren, who was killed at The Battle of Bunker Hill. John was well known for his accomplishments in the Boston area as a physician, anatomist, surgeon, and medical educator including founding the Harvard Medical School in 1782.
Dr. John Warren (1753-1815)
Along with his purchase of Township No. 3 (Hartland) in 1799, Dr. Warren also bought Township No. 5 (St Albans) in 1799, Township No. 5 (Palmyra) in 1800 and Township No. 4 in the 4th Range (Corinna) in 1804. These townships, often referred to collectively as “Warren’s Four Towns”, would share numerous interwoven pieces of property history and family connections over the decades. Hartland was referred to in its early years before incorporation as Warrentown No. 3 or Warren’s Town No. 3. Following Dr. Warren’s death in 1815, future land deeds from Hartland indicate his son, Squire Henry Warren, continued to sell unclaimed lots in his father’s townships.
~ 1810 Federal Census of Fairhaven ~
Much of the area on the western side of the Sebasticook River which eventually became part of Hartland Village was originally part of Township No. 5 in the 1st Range North of the Plymouth Patent which incorporated on June 14, 1813 as St Albans. Many years before settlement began in the present St Albans Village area in the early 1820s, early pioneers of Township No. 5 settled around St Albans Mountain including Judah Hackett who first settled there in 1800. In 1802, William Moor brought his family to settle on his large lot purchased earlier along both sides of the Sebasticook River near present day Commercial Street.
These early settlers referred to Township No. 5 as “Fairhaven” in the 1810 Federal Census where some 2 dozen families had settled around the areas mentioned above by that time. This included family members of William Moor’s wife Sally Moor; her father Abraham Moor and brother Samuel Moor.
U. S. Federal Census – Fairhaven 1810
Transcription of the 1810 Census for Fairhaven as listed in order by Head of Household:
William Moor | Isachar Cook | Samuel Grant | John Lyford | Asa Rowell | Abraham Moor | Isaac Rowell | Samuel Moor | James Martin | Abel Hackett | Judah Hackett
John Smart | Paul Felker | Asa Wiggin | Joseph Watson | Jonathan Hilton | Willoby Cook | Luke Grover | Joseph Dearborn | James Palmer | Benjamin French
Although it began as part of Township No. 5, the boundaries of Hartland and St Albans near the Sebasticook River area would become a long and often controversial dispute for many years with several fluctuations made and then unmade to the original deeded township lines. As St Albans’ population shifted and town affairs centralized to the up and coming village region at the foot of Big Indian Pond, those citizens near the Sebasticook River were further distanced from participation and representation in matters of taxation, schools, roads and other St Albans town affairs. However, until 1846 the area remained split as 2 separate towns served by 2 town governments.
In 1811, settlers of Township No. 3 petitioned the Commonwealth of Massachusetts General Court to organize as a plantation as noted in the Maine State Yearbook & Legislative Manual, however our search for this documentation continues for confirmation. Hartland took its name by request of its inhabitants when they petitioned the Commonwealth of Massachusetts General Court for incorporation as a town. While several theories exist, documented origins of the selected town name remain unknown.
~ Petition to Incorporate the Town of Hartland – 1820 ~
To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in General Court
Assembled on the Second Wednesday of January 1820:
We, your petitioners, inhabitants of Township No. Three, so called, bounded West by Cornville, North by Athens and Harmony, East by St. Albans and Palmyra and South by the Ell of Palmyra and mile and a half strips, so called, humbly represent that there is upwards of fifty families in said Township, and that we labor under many and great inconveniences whereby we cannot in our present situation by any legal means raise money for the support of schools or the making or repairing of roads. We therefore pray your honors to incorporate said Township in a town by the name of Hartland, and as in duty bound we pray.
Thomas Smith Abraham Steward Wesley Christy Isaac Rowell John Davis Samuel Jewitt James Stewart Ezra Withee (Sr)
Uzziel Withee Solomon Spencer Asa Withee James Darling J. Withee Hobbs Perkins George Fuller James Fuller (Sr)
Ambrose Finson Ezekiel Dunlap Joseph Steward Jed Hammond Levi Flagg John Hammond William Fa _ _ th Andrew Phelps
Joseph Phelps John Smith Thomas Huff Benjamin Huff James Huff Moses Huff John Spearin Isaiah Woodbury (I)
Joseph Bowley Uriah Spearin Amos Tucker David Mitchell James Jordan Richard Cook Nathaniel Thurston
~ Act to Incorporate the Town of Hartland – 1820 ~
Commonwealth of Massachusetts – In the Year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Twenty
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court assembled and by the authority of the same, that the Township Numbered Three in the County of Somerset commonly called Warren Town, as described by the following boundaries be and hereby is incorporated and established as a town by the name of Hartland; west by Cornville; north by Athens and Harmony; east by St. Albans and Palmyra; southerly by the L of Palmyra, so called; thence from the west line of said L to the southeast corner of Cornville, including the mile and half strip.
And the inhabitants of the said town of Hartland are hereby vested with all the corporate powers and privileges and shall be also subject to the like duties and requisitions of other corporate towns according to the Constitution and laws of this Commonwealth and any Justice of the Peace for the County of Somerset is hereby empowered upon application therefor to issue a warrant directed to a freehold inhabitant requiring him to notify and warn a meeting of the freeholders and other inhabitants of the said town of Hartland to meet at such convenient time and place as shall be appointed in said warrant for the choice of such officers as towns are by law empowered and required to choose at their annual town meetings.
Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives – February 4, 1820
Passed by the Massachusetts Senate – February 5, 1820
Approved by Massachusetts Governor John Brooks – February 7, 1820
Hartland became the 235th Town in the then District of Maine of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on February 7, 1820. It would be the next to last town to incorporate before Maine became a State on March 15, 1820. (Etna was the last on February 15, 1820)
The Act to Incorporate the Town of Hartland as recorded by the Massachusetts General Court may also be seen on the link below:
~ Warrant for the First Hartland Town Meeting – March 3, 1820 ~
To Ambrose Finson, Esquire – Town of Hartland
You are hereby required in the name of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to summons and notify the freeholders and other inhabitants of said town qualified by law to vote in town meetings viz; such as pay to one single tax besides the Poll or Polls a sum equal to two thirds of a single poll tax, to assemble at Joseph Stewards on Monday the Thirteenth day of March at Ten of the clock in the forenoon to act on the following articles, viz;
1. To choose a Moderator
2. To choose a Town Clerk
3. To choose Selectmen and Assessors
4. To choose a Town Treasurer
5. To choose Surveyors of Highways
6. To choose Surveyors of Boards
7. To choose Fence Viewers
8. To choose one or more Tythingmen
9. To choose a Committee to district the town into Highway and School Districts
10. To choose a Pound Keeper
11. To choose Field Drivers
12. To choose a Collector of Taxes
13. To choose a Constable.
And all other business the town thinks proper.
Given under my hand seal this Third day of March 1820
William Moor – Justice of the Peace (seal)
Pursuant to the within warrant I have summoned and notified the inhabitants of said town qualified as there in expressed to assemble at the time and place and for the purpose within mentioned.
(signed) Ambrose Finson
~ First Hartland Town Meeting – March 13, 1820 ~
At a legal meeting of the inhabitants of the Town of Hartland, March 13th, 1820, verbally warned for the purpose of choosing Town Officers for the present year. Agreeable to an act of Incorporation granted by the Massachusetts General Court, February 7th, 1820.
Voted – Ambrose Finson Moderator
Voted – Ambrose Finson Town Clerk
(Oath administered by William Moor, Justice of the Peace)
Voted – Ambrose Finson First Selectman
Voted – Isaac Rowell Second Selectman
Voted – Ebenezer Odlin Third Selectman
Voted – Ambrose Finson, Isaac Rowell and Ebenezer Odlin Assessors of Taxes
Voted – James Steward Town Treasurer
Voted – Isaac Rowell and Ebenezer Odlin Surveyors of Boards
Voted – Joseph Steward, David Wilkins and Joseph Bowley Fence Viewers
Voted – Amos Tucker, David Wilkins and John Nevens Tythingmen
Voted – Ambrose Finson Pound Keeper
Voted – Henry Jordan, John Nevens and Nathaniel Starbird Field Drivers
Voted – Joseph Steward Constable
Voted – That the lowest bidder shall collect the taxes. Joseph Steward bids four cents on the dollar which is the lowest bid. Voted to accept Ambrose Finson and James Steward, bondsmen for Joseph Steward, Collector of Taxes.
The several Town Officers chosen at this meeting had the oath of their respective offices administered by Benjamin French in presence of the meeting.
Submitted by Ambrose Finson, Town Clerk
~ Hartland Town Meeting – April 3, 1820 ~
Voted $150.00 for the support of the schools.
Voted $600.00 to be expended on the highways.
Voted $75.00 to defray Town Charges.
Submitted by Ambrose Finson, Town Clerk
~ Hartland Town Meeting – April 17, 1820 ~
Voted to pay 12 cents an hour for labor of men and oxen until the last day of July and 10 cents after that time.
Voted to pay all taxes in grain, it being delivered at the collectors betwixt the twentieth and the last day of February next.
Submitted by Ambrose Finson, Town Clerk
~ Payment Vouchers ~
Vouchers were a common means of payment in the early years of Hartland and could be for written by Town Selectmen for about any type of service or goods including Teachers, School Agents and Doctors. As noted, payment was often made in products such as corn, rye or grain.
James Fuller, Sr – School Agent – November 18, 1823
Joseph Bowley – Boarding School Master & Wood – March 24, 1824
Mary Ann French – Teacher – April 9, 1825
Eunice Hook – Teacher – April 9, 1825
Orilla Stafford – Teacher – September 8, 1828
Orinda Kendra – Teacher – August 6, 1829
John Kinsman – Teacher – March 18, 1830
Dr. Calvin Blake – Medical Services – March 30, 1830
~ Hartland & St Albans Town Line – 1846 ~
The town line debate was brought up several times at Hartland Town Meetings between 1820 and 1845 until a formal petition by Hartland citizens to legally change the existing boundaries was presented to the Maine State Legislature in 1846.
The petition noted the existing borders cut up the village, made it difficult to properly tax and made schooling a problem. It ended by stating the proposed line change, “Would enlarge the power of doing good, augment the facilities of business, swell the population, give spirit & vivacity, cause a union of exertion, contribute to diminish jealously, increase happiness & prosperity and produce efforts salutary and desirable.”
On August 7, 1846, the Maine State Legislature formally approved an Act to change the Hartland & St Albans line around the Sebasticook River area to its current boundaries.
~ Hartland Town Reports ~
For several decades, Warrants were posted all around Hartland with generalized information pertaining to the upcoming Town Meeting. In the early years, the initial Town Meeting was followed up by more detailed meetings to discuss and vote on specific financial appropriations per line item.
Hartland Town Meeting Warrant – 1865
The earliest Hartland Town Report discovered so far printed in book form is from the fiscal year ending on March 1, 1881. While only 6 pages, it included financial details for the Town Farm, Roads & Bridges, Town Officers, Schools, Miscellaneous Expenses, Liquor Agency and the assets and liabilities of the town.
New mandates for the reports were soon passed by voters as noted in the 1888-1889 Town Report, “At the last annual meeting held on March 19, 1888, the following vote was passed and accordingly the following report has been made. That the Selectmen’s Report shall be printed in full, giving each order, in favor of whom and for what purpose, also that said report shall be issued at least one week before the annual meeting.”
A collection of mostly post-1900 individual Hartland Town Reports may be found below at the link to the University of Maine at Orono Fogler Library website listed in .pdf format chronologically by year. Most of the Hartland Town Reports were digitally scanned for the Folger Library Collection by Hartland Historical Society Member Ann Foss.
~ Street Names – 1897 ~
At the 1897 Town Meeting, the citizens of Hartland voted to accept an updated list of names for the existing streets in the Village. Most of the streets retained their original names at the vote, however there were a few notable exceptions.
Original Street Name Article – 1897
The square next to the Baptist Church to be called;Warren Square
From said square to J.H. Baker’s;Main Street
From said square to the Palmyra Town Line going south;Elm Street
From said square to the St. Albans Town Line going east;Academy Street
From said Academy Street at the point of T. A. Linn’s (Thomas Archibald Linn) going north;Blake Street
From said square to the St. Albans Town Line going north;Commercial Street
From A. J. Moor’s (Amasa James Moor) to said Commercial Street going east;North Street
From the Iron Bridge to said Commercial Street going east; Water Street
From A. J. Moor’s to said Main Street going south;Mill Street
From said Main Street at the point of J. S. Page’s (John S. Page) going south;Pittsfield Avenue
From said Main Street at the point of N. M. Webb’s (Nathan M. Webb) going northerly to Rowell’s Hill;Pleasant Street
Before the changes in 1897, Commercial Street was known as North Street.
North Street was first known as Tannery Road then Billings Street after Josiah Billings built a tannery on the north side of the Upper Dam in 1856. It was later referred to by many locals as Upper Georgetown.
Water Street was known as Georgetown or Lower Georgetown. The upper section of Mill Street from the Iron Bridge to North Street was known to locals as Bridge Street.
Seekins Street did exist until 1903 when Walter E. M. Seekins first extended a new street from Commercial Street through to Blake Street.
Moore Street was only an entry from the Mill Street side into the Moor’s various lumber mill & furniture making operations. It was extended through to Main Street by 1896 but remained a private way until 1955. It was referred to as Webb Avenue by many locals.
Hubbard Avenue was officially recognized by the town as a public street in 1958 named for Ensign S. Hubbard. It is unknown exactly when the 2 original extended driveways met to form the now familiar horseshoe avenue but for many years the two entryways were known respectively as Fairgrieve Street on the river side and Hubbard Avenue from the other side.
Crosby Street was also recognized as a street in 1958. It began as a private entry built by the Martins to their gravel pits and was named for Elwin L. Crosby, grandfather of Mike Crosby of Crosby & Neal Funeral Home.
~ East Somerset County Register ~
This register provides a detailed overview of Hartland as of 1912 including some its early settlers, businesses, churches, organizations and a listing of Town Officials beginning in 1850. A transcription of the original Hartland related pages of the book may be seen on the document below.